Battle Royale: Beyond Blunderdome

Optionally, the collected virus particles may be purified if desired. Examples of categories of animal viruses useful as vectors include, without limitation, retrovirus (including lentivirus), adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, herpesvirus (e.g., herpes simplex virus), poxvirus, baculovirus, papillomavirus, and papovavirus (e.g., SV40). Additional exemplary vectors include, without limitation, plasmids, phagemids, cosmids, artificial chromosomes such as yeast artificial chromosome (YAC), bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), or P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC), bacteriophages such as lambda phage or M13 phage, and animal viruses. Examples of vectors are plasmid, autonomously replicating sequences, and transposable elements. Illustrative examples of retroviral-derived env genes which can be employed in the invention include, but are not limited to: MLV envelopes, 10A1 envelope, BAEV, FeLV-B, RD114, SSAV, Ebola, Sendai, FPV (Fowl plague virus), and influenza virus envelopes. Examples of RNA export elements include, but are not limited to, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rev response element (RRE) (see e.g., Cullen et al., 1991. J. Virol. J. Virol. 66:5110-5113. Infectious virus particles may be collected from the packaging cells using conventional techniques. An “exogenous” control sequence is one which is placed in juxtaposition to a gene by means of genetic manipulation (i.e., molecular biological techniques) such that transcription of that gene is directed by the linked enhancer/promoter.

According to certain embodiments of the invention the vector comprises at least one (typically two) site(s) for recombination mediated by a site specific recombinase. Conditional expression can also be achieved by using a site specific DNA recombinase. In one embodiment, where expression of two or more polypeptides is desired, the polynucleotide sequences encoding them can be separated by and IRES sequence as discussed elsewhere herein. In preferred embodiments, fusion polypeptides and polynucleotides encoding fusion polypeptides are provided. Fusion polypeptides may be produced by chemical synthetic methods or by chemical linkage between the two moieties or may generally be prepared using other standard techniques. The production of infectious viral particles and viral stock solutions may be carried out using conventional techniques. Methods of preparing viral stock solutions are known in the art and free sex videoes are illustrated by, e.g., Y. Soneoka et al. The packaging vectors of the present invention can be introduced into human cells or cell lines by standard methods including, e.g., calcium phosphate transfection, lipofection or electroporation.

Typically, the packaging vectors are included in a packaging cell, and are introduced into the cell via transfection, transduction or infection. In preferred embodiments, the target cell is a T cell. In certain embodiments, the term “target cell” is used interchangeably with host cell and refers to transfected, infected, or transduced cells of a desired cell type. The transduced T cells elicit a stable, long-term, and persistent T-cell response. In particular embodiments, host cells transduced with viral vector of the invention that expresses one or more polypeptides, are administered to a subject to treat and/or prevent a B-cell malignancy. A “host cell” includes cells transfected, infected, or transduced in vivo, ex vivo, or in vitro with a recombinant vector or a polynucleotide of the invention. A vector may include sequences that direct autonomous replication in a cell, or may include sequences sufficient to allow integration into host cell DNA. In particular embodiments, host cells infected with viral vector of the invention are administered to a subject in need of therapy.

Preferably, the viral env proteins expressed by packaging cells of the invention are encoded on a separate vector from the viral gag and pol genes, as has been previously described. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, lentiviral envelope proteins are pseudotyped with VSV-G. In one embodiment, retroviral or lentiviral transfer vectors comprise one or more export elements. Viral vectors and transfer plasmids contain structural and/or functional genetic elements that are primarily derived from a virus. Therapy is generally incorporated into the treatment of addiction along with any co-occurring disorders that may be present such as anxiety, depression, and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder. A retroviral/lentiviral transfer vector of the present invention can be introduced into a packaging cell line, via transfection, transduction or infection, to generate a producer cell or cell line. Polypeptides of the present invention include fusion polypeptides. It should be noted that modifications to the LTRs such as modifications to the 3′ LTR, the 5′ LTR, or both 3′ and 5′ LTRs, are also included in the invention.